Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorNielsen A.M
dc.contributor.authorGarcia L.A.T
dc.contributor.authorSilva K.J.S
dc.contributor.authorSabogal-Paz L.P
dc.contributor.authorHincapié M.M
dc.contributor.authorMontoya L.J
dc.contributor.authorGaleano L
dc.contributor.authorGaldos-Balzategui A
dc.contributor.authorReygadas F
dc.contributor.authorHerrera C
dc.contributor.authorGolden S
dc.contributor.authorByrne J.A
dc.contributor.authorFernández-Ibáñez P.
dc.description.abstractChlorination has historically provided microbiologically safe drinking water in public water supplies. Likewise, chlorine has also been introduced as a low-cost disinfection method in rural and marginalized communities, both at community and household level, as well as during emergencies. Although this practice is common and well established for use as a household water treatment technology in the Global South, several challenges in effective and efficient implementation still need to be addressed. Here, we explored these issues by a literature review and narrowed them to the status of three Latin American countries (Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil). Overall, it was found that although guidance on household-based chlorination includes information on health risks and hygiene, this may not create enough incentive for the user to adapt the method satisfactorily. Physicochemical quality of the water influences chlorination efficiency and it is found that variations in quality are rarely considered when recommending chlorine doses during implementation. These are far more often based on a few measurements of turbidity, thereby not considering dissolved organic matter, or seasonal and day-to-day variations. Other factors such as user preferences, chlorine product quality and availability also represent potential barriers to the sustainable use of chlorination. For chlorination to become a sustainable household water treatment, more focus should therefore be given to local conditions prior to the intervention, as well as support and maintenance of behavioural changes during and after the intervention. © 2022 The Authorseng
dc.publisherElsevier GmbH
dc.sourceInt. J. Hyg. Environ. Health
dc.sourceInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Healtheng
dc.subjectDrinking watereng
dc.subjectHousehold water treatmenteng
dc.subjectRural householdseng
dc.subjectWater disinfectioneng
dc.titleChlorination for low-cost household water disinfection – A critical review and status in three Latin American countrieseng
dc.publisher.programIngeniería Ambientalspa
dc.publisher.facultyFacultad de Ingenieríasspa
dc.affiliationNielsen, A.M., School of Engineering, Ulster University, Northern IrelandBT37 0QB, United Kingdom
dc.affiliationGarcia, L.A.T., Department of Hydraulics and Sanitation, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, São Carlos, São Paulo, Zip code 13566-590, Brazil
dc.affiliationSilva, K.J.S., Department of Hydraulics and Sanitation, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, São Carlos, São Paulo, Zip code 13566-590, Brazil
dc.affiliationSabogal-Paz, L.P., Department of Hydraulics and Sanitation, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, São Carlos, São Paulo, Zip code 13566-590, Brazil
dc.affiliationHincapié, M.M., School of Engineering, University of Medellin, Ctra 87, 30-65, Medellin, 050026, Colombia
dc.affiliationMontoya, L.J., School of Engineering, University of Medellin, Ctra 87, 30-65, Medellin, 050026, Colombia
dc.affiliationGaleano, L., School of Engineering, University of Medellin, Ctra 87, 30-65, Medellin, 050026, Colombia
dc.affiliationGaldos-Balzategui, A., School of Engineering, Ulster University, Northern IrelandBT37 0QB, United Kingdom, Fundación Cántaro Azul, Calzada Daniel Sarmiento 19, Los Alcanfores, San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas 29246, Mexico
dc.affiliationReygadas, F., Fundación Cántaro Azul, Calzada Daniel Sarmiento 19, Los Alcanfores, San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas 29246, Mexico
dc.affiliationHerrera, C., Centro de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Antioquia, Carrera 46, 56–11,15. Ed. Tecnoparque, Medellin, Colombia
dc.affiliationGolden, S., Belfast School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Ulster University, United Kingdom
dc.affiliationByrne, J.A., School of Engineering, Ulster University, Northern IrelandBT37 0QB, United Kingdom
dc.affiliationFernández-Ibáñez, P., School of Engineering, Ulster University, Northern IrelandBT37 0QB, United Kingdom
dc.relation.referencesRice, E.W., Baird, R.B., Eaton, A.D., Clesceri, L.S., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (2012) American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA) and Water Environment Federation (WEF), , twenty-second ed. Washington, D.C., USA
dc.relation.referencesÁvila de Navia, S.L., Estupiñán-Torres, S.M., Díaz González, L., Bacteriological water quality of the Vereda El Charco, San Miguel de Sema, Boyacá, Colombia (Calidad bacteriológica del agua Vereda El Charco, San Miguel de Sema, Boyacá, Colombia) (2016) Nova, 14 (25), pp. 139-145
dc.relation.referencesBlum, A., Null, C., Hoffmann, V., (2014), pp. 1873-1886. , Marketing household water treatment: willingness to pay results from an experiment in rural Kenya. Water, 6(7)
dc.relation.referencesBoisson, S., Stevenson, M., Shapiro, L., Kumar, V., Singh, L., Ward, D., Clasen, T., Effect of household-based drinking water chlorination on diarrhoea among children under five in Orissa, India: a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial (2013) PLoS Med., 10 (8)
dc.relation.referencesCare for water for human consumption (Cuidados com água para consumo humano) (2011),, Brazilian Ministry of Health
dc.relation.referencesFree Chlorine Testing (2014),, (Accessed 23 October 2019)
dc.relation.referencesSafe Water System (2014),, (Accessed 19 May 2020)
dc.relation.referencesChankova, S., Hatt, L., Musange, S., A community-based approach to promote household water treatment in Rwanda (2012) J. Water Health, 10 (1), pp. 116-129
dc.relation.referencesClasen, T., Edmondson, P., Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets as an alternative to sodium hypochlorite for the routine treatment of drinking water at the household level (2006) Int. J. Hyg Environ. Health, 209 (2), pp. 173-181
dc.relation.referencesClasen, T., Haller, L., Walker, D., Bartram, J., Cairncross, S., Cost-effectiveness of water quality interventions for preventing diarrheal disease in developing countries (2007) PLoS Med., 5 (4), pp. 599-608
dc.relation.references(2016),, (Accessed 13 June 2020)
dc.relation.referencesColombia, Basic Water and Sanitation Master Plan. Strategic Vision 2018 – 2030 (Plan Director Agua Y Saneamiento Básico. Visión Estratégica 2018 – 2030) (2018), Bogotá D.C., Colombia: Viceministerio de Agua y Saneamiento Básico, Gobierno de Colombia, Minvivienda
dc.relation.referencesConagua, Water statistics in Mexico (Estadisticas del Agua en México) (2018),
dc.relation.referencesCrump, J., Otieno, P., Slutsker, L., Keswick, B., Rosen, D., Hoekstra, M., Vulule, J.M., Luby, S., Household based treatment of drinking water with flocculant-disinfectant for preventing diarrhoea in areas with turbid source water in rural western Kenya: cluster randomised controlled trial (2005) BMJ, 331, p. 7515. , 478
dc.relation.referencesDe Souza, R.S., De Menezes, L.G., Felizzola, J.F., Figueiredo, R.O., Sá, T.D., Guerra, F.A., Water and health in igarapé-açu, pará, Brazil (2016) Saúde Soc., 25 (4), pp. 1095-1107
dc.relation.referencesDeng, Y., Making waves: principles for the design of sustainable household water treatment (2021) Water Res., 198
dc.relation.referencesEmbrapa, Planting Water – Embrapa Chlorinator (Plantando Água – Clorador Embrapa). São Carlos: Embrapa Instrumentação (2015),, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation
dc.relation.referencesErcumen, A., Naser, A., Unicomb, L., Arnold, B., Colford, J., Luby, S., Effects of source-versus household contamination of tubewell water on child diarrhea in Rural Bangladesh: a randomized controlled trial (2015) PLoS One, 10 (3)
dc.relation.referencesFélix-Fuentes, A., Campas-Baypoli, O.N., Aguilar-Apodaca, M.G., Meza-Montenegro, M.M., Microbiological quality of water for human consumption in three rural communities in southern Sonora (Mexico) (Calidad microbiológica del agua de consumo humano de tres comunidades rurales del sur de Sonora (México)) (2007) RESPYN, 8 (3), pp. 1-13
dc.relation.referencesFeng, C., Xu, Z., Li, Y., Zhu, N., Wang, Z., Research progress on the contamination status and control policy of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in drinking water (2021) J. Water, Sanit. Hyg. Dev., 11 (6), pp. 867-886
dc.relation.referencesFerreira, D.C., Luz, S.L., Buss, D.F., Evaluation of simple diffusion chlorinators for decontamination of wells in a rural settlement in Amazonia, Brazil (2016) Ciência Saúde Coletiva, 21 (3), pp. 767-776
dc.relation.referencesFirth, J., Balraj, V., Muliyil, J., Roy, S., Rani, L., Chandresekhar, R., Kang, G., Point-of-use interventions to decrease contamination of drinking water: a randomized, controlled pilot study on efficacy, effectiveness, and acceptability of closed containers, Moringa oleifera, and in-home chlorination in rural South India (2010) Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 82 (5), pp. 759-765
dc.relation.referencesFreeman, M., Quick, R., Abbott, D., Ogutu, P., Rheingans, R., Increasing equity of access to point-of-use water treatment products through social marketing and entrepreneurship: a case study in western Kenya (2009) J. Water Health, 7 (3), pp. 527-534
dc.relation.referencesFunasa, Water chlorination manual in small communities using the simplified chlorinator developed by Funasa (Manual de cloração de água em pequenas comunidades utilizando o clorador simplificado desenvolvido pela Funasa) (2014), Brazilian National Health Fundation Brazil
dc.relation.referencesGaldos-Balzategui, A., Torre, J.C., Sánchez-Pérez, H., López, J.J., Dosal, A.T., Urbina, S.G., Quantitative microbial risk assessment of drinking water in San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico (Evaluación cuantitativa del riesgo microbiológico por consumo de agua en San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México) (2017) Tecnol. y Cienc. del Agua, 8 (1), pp. 133-153
dc.relation.referencesGallandat, K., Lantagne, D., Lessons learned from fifteen drinking water treatment program evaluations in Haiti. Loughborough University. Transformation towards sustainable and resilient WASH services (2018) Proceedings of the 41st WEDC International Conference, 2895. , WEDC, Loughborough University United Kingdom
dc.relation.referencesGarrett, V., Ogutu, P., Mabonga, P., Ombeki, S., Mwaki, A., Aluoch, G., Phelan, M., Quick, R., Diarrhoea prevention in a high-risk rural Kenyan populationthrough point-of-use chlorination, safe water storage,sanitation, and rainwater harvesting (2008) Epidemiol. Infect., 136 (11), pp. 1463-1471
dc.relation.referencesCauses of Death Collaborators, 2018. Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (2018) Lancet, 392 (10159), pp. 1736-1788
dc.relation.referencesGcrf-Ukri, Safewater project (2020),, (Accessed 24 April 2020)
dc.relation.referencesGeremew, A., Mengistie, B., Mellor, J., Lantagne, D., Alemayehu, E., Sahilu, G., Consistent point-of-use water chlorination among households using unimproved water sources and treatment preference in Eastern Ethiopia (2019) Int. J. Environ. Health Res., 29 (6), pp. 686-701
dc.relation.referencesGuerra, C.H., Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Clorador Simplified for Diffusion in the Disinfection of the Water for Human Consumption in Country Properties in the Basin of the Ribeirão O Laje – Caratinga/MG (2006), Master thesis, Centro universitário de Caratinga Brazil
dc.relation.referencesGuzmán, B., Nava, G., Díaz, P., Quality of water for human consumption and its association with morbimortality in Colombia, 2008-2012 (La calidad del agua para consumo humano y su asociación con la morbimortalidad en Colombia, 2008-2012) (2015) Biomedica, 35 (2), pp. 177-190
dc.relation.referencesHaro, J., Nubes, G., Ortiz, J.R., Sanitary risks in bacteriological quality of water: an evaluation in ten states of the Mexican Republic (Riesgos sanitarios en calidad bacteriológica del agua: una evaluación en diez estados de la república mexicana (2012) Reg. soc., 24 (3), pp. 257-288
dc.relation.referencesHarshfield, E., Lantagne, D., Turbes, A., Null, C., Evaluating the sustained health impact of household chlorination of drinking water in rural Haiti (2012) Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 87 (5), pp. 786-795
dc.relation.references(2000),, (Accessed 13 June 2020)
dc.relation.referencesCerca de la mitad de los hogares realizan algún tipo de seperación o classificatción d la basura: módulo de hogares y medio ambiente (2018)
dc.relation.referencesInungu, J., Zinsou, C., Mustafa, Y., Younis, M., Singbo, N., Factors associated with the uptake of Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NADCC) tablets as household water-treatment product among caregivers of children under five in Benin, West Africa (2016) J. Health Hum. Serv. Adm., 39 (1), pp. 122-141
dc.relation.referencesKumwenda, S., Morse, T.K., Lungu, K.T., Mwendera, C., Kasambara, A., Household use of water guard for treating drinking water in Chikwawa district, Southern Malawi (2014) Malawi. J. Appl. Sci., 1 (1), pp. 2-9
dc.relation.referencesLantagne, D., Clasen, T., Effective use of household water treatment and safe storage in response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake (2013) Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 89 (3), pp. 426-433
dc.relation.referencesLantagne, D.S., Blount, B.C., Cardinali, F., Quick, R., Disinfection by-product formation and mitigation strategies in point-of-use chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters in western Kenya (2008) J. Water Health, 6 (1), pp. 67-82
dc.relation.referencesLantagne, D.S., Cardinali, F., Blount, B.C., Disinfection by-product formation and mitigation strategies in point-of-use chlorination with sodium dichloroisocyanurate in Tanzania (2010) Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 83 (1), pp. 135-143
dc.relation.referencesLantagne, D.S., Blanton, E., Kotlarz, N., Gezagehn, H., van Dusen, E., Berens, J., Jellison, K., Hypochlorite solution expiration and stability in household water treatment in developing countries (2011) J. Environ. Eng., 137 (2), pp. 131-136
dc.relation.referencesLevy, K., Anderson, L., Robb, K., Cevallos, W., Trueba, G., Eisenberg, J., Household effectiveness vs. laboratory efficacy of point-of-use chlorination (2014) Water Res., 54, pp. 69-77
dc.relation.referencesLoharikar, A., Russo, E., Sheth, A., Menon, M., Kudzala, A., Tauzie, B., Masuku, H.D., Quick, R., Long-term impact of integration of household water treatment and hygiene promotion with antenatal services on maternal water treatment and hygiene practices in Malawi (2013) Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 88 (2), pp. 267-274
dc.relation.referencesMakutsa, P., Nzaku, K., Ogutu, P., Barasa, P., Ombeki, S., Mwaki, A., Quick, R., Challenges in implementing a point-of-use water quality intervention in rural Kenya (2001) Am. J. Publ. Health, 91 (10)
dc.relation.referencesMclaughlin, L., Levy, K., Beck, N., Shin, G., Meschke, J., Eisenberg, J., An observational study on the effectiveness of point-of-use chlorination (2009) J. Environ. Health, 71 (8), pp. 48-53
dc.relation.referencesMeierhofer, R., Wietlisbach, B., Matiko, C., Influence of container cleanliness, container disinfection with chlorine, and container handling on recontamination of water collected from a water kiosk in a Kenyan slum (2019) J. Water Health, 17 (2), pp. 308-317
dc.relation.referencesMengistie, B., Berhane, Y., Worku, A., Household water chlorination reduces incidence of diarrhea among under-five children in rural Ethiopia: a cluster randomized controlled trial (2013) PLoS One, 8 (10)
dc.relation.referencesMitro, B., Wolfe, M., Galeano, M., Sikder, M., Gallandat, K., Lantagne, D., Barriers and facilitators to chlorine tablet distribution and use in emergencies: a qualitative assessment (2019) Water, 11 (6)
dc.relation.referencesMohamed, H., Brown, J., Njee, R., Clasen, T., Malebo, H., Mbuligwe, S., Point-of-use chlorination of turbid water: results from a field study in Tanzania (2015) J. Water Health, 13 (2), pp. 544-552
dc.relation.referencesMurray, A., Napotnik, J., Rayner, J., Mendoza, A., Mitro, B., Norville, J., Faith, S.H., Lantagne, D., Evaluation of consistent use, barriers to use, and microbiological effectiveness of three prototype household water treatment technologies in Haiti, Kenya, and Nicaragua (2020) Sci. Total Environ., 718
dc.relation.referencesNavarro, I., Jiménez, B., Maya, C., Lucario, E.S., Assessment of potential cancer risks from THMs in water supply at Mexican rural communities (2007) International Symposium on New Directions in Urban Water Management, , UNESCO IHP Paris, France
dc.relation.referencesNguyen, K.H., Operario, D.J., Nyathi, M.E., Hill, C.L., Smith, J.A., Guerrant, R.L., Samie, A., Rogawski McQuade, E.T., Seasonality of drinking water sources and the impact of drinking water source on enteric infections among children in Limpopo, South Africa (2021) Int. J. Hyg Environ. Health, 231
dc.relation.referencesOpryszko, M., Majeed, S., Hansen, P., Myers, J., Baba, D., Thompson, R., Burnham, G., Water and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in rural Afghanistan: a randomized controlled study (2010) J. Water Health, 8 (4), pp. 687-702
dc.relation.referencesParker, A., Stephenson, R., Riley, P., Ombeki, S., Komolleh, C., Sibley, L., Quick, R., Sustained high levels of stored drinking water treatment and retention of hand-washing knowledge in rural Kenyan households following a clinic-based intervention (2006) Epidemiol. Infect., 134 (5), pp. 1029-1036
dc.relation.referencesParvez, S.M., Azad, R., Rahman, M., Unicomb, L., Ram, P., Naser, A., Stewart, C.P., Luby, S., Achieving optimal technology and behavioral uptake of single and combined interventions of water, sanitation hygiene and nutrition, in an efficacy trial (WASH benefits) in rural Banglades (2018) Trials, 19, p. 358
dc.relation.referencesPatrick, M., Berendes, D., Murphy, J., Bertrand, F., Husain, F., Handzel, T., Access to safe water in rural artibonite, Haiti 16 Months after the onset of the cholera epidemic (2013) Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 89 (4), pp. 647-653
dc.relation.referencesPeres, M.R., Ebdon, J., Purnell, S., Taylor, H., Potential microbial transmission pathways in rural communities using multiple alternative water sources in semi-arid Brazil (2020) Int. J. Hyg Environ. Health, 224
dc.relation.referencesQuiroga, E., García, M., Solarte, Y., Community participation: a strategy to achieve low-risk microbiological water and effective disinfection (Participación comunitaria: Una estrategia para lograr agua de bajo riesgo microbiológica y una desinfección efectiva) (2015)
dc.relation.referencesRam, P., Kelsey, E., Rasoatiana, M.R., Rakotomalala, O., Dunston, C., Quick, R., Bringing safe water to remote populations: an evaluation of a portable point-of-use intervention in rural Madagascar (2007) Am. J. Publ. Health, 97 (3), pp. 398-400
dc.relation.referencesRangel, J., Lopez, B., Mejia, M., Mendoza, C., Luby, S., A novel technology to improve drinking water quality: a microbiological evaluation of in-home flocculation and chlorination in rural Guatemala (2003) J. Water Health, 1 (1), pp. 15-22
dc.relation.referencesTechnical Regulation for the Drinking Water and Basic Sanitation Sector-RAS (Reglamento Técnico para el Sector de Agua Potable y Saneamiento Básico-RAS). República de Colombia (2010), Ministerio de Vivienda Ciudad y Territorio
dc.relation.referencesRibeiro, M.R., de Abreu, L.C., Laporta, G.Z., Drinking water and rural schools in the Western Amazon: an environmental intervention study (2018) PeerJ, 15 (6)
dc.relation.referencesRitter, M., Camille, E., Velcine, C., Guillaume, R., Lantagne, D., Optimizing household chlorination marketing strategies: a randomized controlled trial on the effect of price and promotion on adoption in Haiti (2017) Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 97 (1), pp. 271-280
dc.relation.referencesRodrigues, M.E., Water treatment: Tablet chlorinator (Tratamento de água: clorador de Pastilha) (2013), Belo Horizonte: Emater-MG
dc.relation.referencesRoma, E., Bond, T., Jeffrey, P., Factors involved in sustained use of point-of-use water disinfection methods: a field study from Flores Island, Indonesia (2014) J. Water Health, 12 (3), pp. 573-583
dc.relation.referencesRosa, G., Kelly, P., Clasen, T., Consistency of use and effectiveness of household water treatment practices among urban and rural populations claiming to treat their drinking water at home: a case study in Zambia (2016) Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 94 (2), pp. 445-455
dc.relation.referencesRubino, F., Corona, Y., Pérez, J.G., Smith, C., Bacterial contamination of drinking water in Guadalajara, Mexico (2019) Int. J. Environ. Res. Publ. Health, 16 (1), p. 67
dc.relation.referencesSánchez, L., Rodríguez, S., Escobar, J., Torres, P., Modeling of residual chlorine and disinfection by-products in a pilot sector of the drinking water distribution system in the city of Cali (2010) Inycompe, 12 (1), pp. 127-138
dc.relation.referencesSoares, D., Access, supply and control of water in an indigenous Chamula community in Chiapas. An analysis from the perspective of gender, environment and development (2007) Reg. soc., 19 (38), pp. 25-50
dc.relation.referencesSolomon, E., Robele, S., Kloos, H., Mengistie, B., Effect of household water treatment with chlorine on diarrhea among children under the age of five years in rural areas of Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia: a cluster randomized controlled trial (2020) Infect. Dis. Poverty, 9 (1), p. 64
dc.relation.referencesSolomon, E., Robele, S., Kloos, H., Mengistie, B., Comparing the effect of independent and combined interventions of household chlorination and handwashing on diarrhea of under-fives in rural Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia: a cluster randomized controlled trial (2021) Pan. Afr. Med. J., 40, p. 239
dc.relation.referencesTvrdá, E., Benko, F., Chapter 1 - free radicals: what they are and what they do (2020) Pathology, pp. 3-13. , V.R. Preedy Academic Press
dc.relation.referencesAlternative Disinfectants and Oxidants Guidance Manual (1999), USEPA
dc.relation.referencesVásquez, W.F., Mozumder, P., Hernández-Arce, J., Berrens, R.P., Willingness to pay for safe drinking water: evidence from Parral, Mexico (2009) J. Environ. Manag., 90 (11), pp. 3391-3400
dc.relation.referencesWheeler, J., Agha, S., Use of Certeza point-of-use water treatment product in Mozambique (2013) J. Water, Sanit. Hyg. Dev., 3 (3), pp. 341-348
dc.relation.referencesWHO, Evaluating Household Water Treatment Options: Health-Based Targets and Microbiological Performance Specifications (2011), WHO Geneva
dc.relation.referencesWHO, Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality: Fourth Edition Incorporating the First Addendum (2017), World Health Organization Geneva Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO
dc.relation.referencesWHO, Results of Round II of the WHO Household Water Treatment Evaluation Scheme (2019), WHO Geneva
dc.relation.referencesWHO, Progress on Household Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene 2000-2020: Five Years into the SDGs (2021), WHO Geneva
dc.relation.referencesA Toolkit for Monitoring and Evaluating Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Programmes (2012), UNICEF and WHO Geneva
dc.relation.referencesProgress on Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines (2017), UNICEF and WHO Geneva
dc.relation.references(2020),!/dashboard/3002, (Accessed 21 April 2020)
dc.relation.referencesWilhelm, N., Kaufmann, A., Blanton, E., Lantagne, D., Sodium hypochlorite dosage for household and emergency water treatment: updated recommendations (2018) J. Water Health, 16 (1), pp. 112-125
dc.relation.referencesWood, S., Foster, J., Kols, A., Understanding why women adopt and sustain home water treatment: insights from the Malawi antenatal care program (2012) Soc. Sci. Med., 75 (4), pp. 634-642
dc.relation.referencesXavier, R.P., Siqueira, L.P., Vital, F.A., Rocha, F.J., I, J., Calazans, G.M., Microbiological quality of drinking rainwater in the inland region of Pajeú, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil (2011) Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 53 (3), pp. 121-124
dc.relation.referencesXiao, R., Duan, Y., Chu, W., The effectiveness of household water treatment and safe storage in improving drinking water quality: a disinfection by-product (DBP) perspective (2020) J. Water Supply Res. Technol. - Aqua, 69 (8), pp. 785-806
dc.identifier.reponamereponame:Repositorio Institucional Universidad de Medellín
dc.identifier.instnameinstname:Universidad de Medellín

Files in this item


There are no files associated with this item.

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record